Literally out-landers or foreigners. The massive influx of foreigners to the Witwatersrand goldfields created a large immigrant population in the ZAR [Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek]. Their agitations for political rights led to the formation in1887 of the Tweede Volksraad or Second (Lower) House (Parliament) where they had representation and which had powers granted over, amongst others, the DEPARTEMENT PUBLIEKE WERKEN - ZUID-AFRIKAANSCHE REPUBLIEK and the voting of funds for the construction of ciivic buildings and civil works.