Chicago School/ Style
The use of the term relates to a group of architects such as Jenny, Richardson, Sullivan and Wright, active in Chicago at the turn of the C19 and early C20. The use of the riveted steel framed structural system adopted from the technologies developed for bridge construction at the time and used for early commercial high-rise buildings resulted in an aesthetic of verticality and regular fenestration with the expression on the facade of the regulating structural system. This was highly influential in architecture and as Johannesburg developed as a commercial centre it was quickly adopted and in 1903 the South African Mining and Engineering Journal reported that some three or four steel skeleton framed buildings on the 'American principle' had been erected in Johannesburg with more in Cape Town. The Old Carlton Hotel served as prime example of the new architectural idiom in Johannesburg.