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Author:Picton-Seymour, Désirée
Title:Historical Buildings in South Africa
Place:Cape Town
Publisher:Struikhof Publishers


The ever-changing cities and towns of South Africa have fascinated me since my arrival in South Africa as a schoolgirl. Coming straight from London, the colonial version of Georgian and Victorian buildings was somewhat of a surprise to me, though the whitewashed, thick-walled buildings of the Dutch era, apart from their gables, were strangely reminiscent of Mediterranean buildings I had known as a child. I have always drawn buildings, and here I drew the buildings around me too, especially making records of those about to be demolished. Eventually I wished to know more about these buildings: who built them and why they were designed in that particular manner. Research was difficult. There was remarkably little to be found on record; architects had turned out their offices and destroyed the evidence, municipalities had lost' their old plans, but fortunately people still remembered the past and the older generation of architects helped me greatly. I did succeed though, in finding journals, catalogues, memoirs, some plans and much intriguing information. The architects themselves emerged as personalities and their buildings had the particular quality of their individual creators.

This book covers buildings erected in South Africa ranging from the 17th-century Castle, Cape Town, to the pre-World War II, Art Deco Voortrekker Monument. The styles and fashions in the architecture of this country are closely bound to the history of its peoples. Firstly, there was the Dutch settlement at the Cape, and then the influx of the French Huguenots with their refining influence on the hitherto robust baroque style of architecture. The times of prosperity prior to the waning of the Dutch East India Company produced many fine and famous buildings. At this period the strong neo-classical influence of the Frenchman Louis Michel Thibault, together with the German sculptor Anton Anreith, brought new life to the buildings of the Cape. Thibault's influence continued throughout the First British Occupation and, following the Treaty of Amiens, the Batavian Republic and then the Second British Occupation. However, during the early years of the 19th century fashions in architecture changed completely with the introduction by the British of the severe Georgian and the more delicate Regency styles. The 1820 Settlers created the peculiarly Eastern Cape version of the Georgian and Regency idiom, whilst the Voorrrekkers spread the basic Cape style throughout the land. The missionaries, meanwhile, built their far-flung stations with whatever building materials were available. Basically the traditional Cape manner of building lasted throughout three quarters of the 19th century until the discovery of diamonds brought untold prosperity in its wake. Simultaneously, the improvements in transport by both sea and land made it possible to import European mass-produced building materials. Young architects came to the colonies and to the Boer Republics in search of good health and prosperity, bringing with them the expertise and current fashions of their home countries. The Anglo-Boer War cut across the country both materially and spiritually; with its ending in 1902 came the beginning of a new century. The 20th century brought to the world new technology and new ideals - the Brave New World of the Bauhaus and the Modern Movement. However, the previous tastes and architectural styles lingered on, especially the Arts and Crafts style as adapted to South African needs by Sir Herbert Baker. His Union Buildings marked the end of an era, and soon afterwards, World War I blackened the horizon. When peace was restored, the attitudes of the world had changed and for the next two decades South Africa expanded considerably, with much new development taking place and all types of buildings being erected. Perhaps it is the large Art Deco business houses that typify this era, the multi-storeyed city blocks of Johannesburg in particular. The devastation of World War II virtually brought to an end the way of life of the first half of the 20th century. The world was to emerge a very different place with very different ideals.

My selection of some 300 buildings was indeed a difficult task. Some were obvious choices, being of national importance, while others were included because they formed interesting groups. I also selected buildings that had not previously been recorded, and finally, there are my own favourite buildings, either beautiful or eccentric. In order to give some sort of logical sequence to the book, towns and buildings are listed in a roughly geographical order. An alphabetical index to names of buildings, people and towns is given at the end of the book for quick and easy reference.

To the best of my knowledge the buildings included in this book are still in existence. Many are National Monuments (marked with an asterisk in the index), and there are others that deserve to be proclaimed. Some of the groups of buildings have been declared conservation areas either by the National Monuments Council, or by their respective municipalities. Several buildings are museums and are therefore open to the public, but for the most part these buildings are in private hands and may not be visited without prior permission.

Dates of buildings mentioned in the text should be accepted with caution; it has not always been possible to differentiate between the date on which a plan was passed, and that on which a building was begun, or completed.

Much of this work has been the result of direct observation, supplemented by archival, published and verbal sources of information. I have travelled extensively throughout South Africa over many years and have sought out buildings of architectural and historical interest. Whenever possible I have made sketches and taken photographs, especially where points of style have seemed worthy of special analysis and illustration, or when a worthwhile building has been threatened with demolition.

Although the buildings of South Africa conform to certain types, the variety is limitless. But in order to keep the unique and rich aspect of the towns, cities and country districts, great care is needed in planning for both development and conservation.

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Towns linked to this book

Aberdeen, Eastern Cape. pp 89
Alberton, Gauteng. pp 178
Balfour, Mpumalanga. pp 178
Barberton, Mpumalanga. pp 181
Bathurst, Eastern Cape. pp 109
Beaufort West, Western Cape. pp 89
Belvidere, Eastern Cape. pp 84
Bethelsdorp, Eastern Cape. pp 103
Bethulie, Free State. pp 124
Bloemfontein, Free State. pp 124-128
Boksburg, Gauteng. pp 148
Burgersdorp, Eastern Cape. pp 94
Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 12-47
Cathcart, Eastern Cape. pp 121
Ceres, Western Cape. pp 77
Clanwilliam, Western Cape. pp 75
Cradock, Eastern Cape. pp 93-94
Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 132-136
East London, Eastern Cape. pp 117-118
Elim, Western Cape. pp 79
Estcourt, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 143
Ficksburg, Free State. pp 129
Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape. pp 116-117
Genadendal, Western Cape. pp 79
George, Western Cape. pp 83
Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape. pp 89-93
Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. pp 110-115
Harrismith, Free State. pp 129
Heidelberg, Gauteng. pp 178
Heidelberg, Western Cape. pp 82
Hopefield, Western Cape. pp 74-75
Hout Bay, Western Cape. pp 48
Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 148-161
Kimberley, Northern Cape. pp 95-99
King William's Town, Eastern Cape. pp 118-121
Knysna, Western Cape. pp 84
Kokstad, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 132
Kroonstad, Free State. pp 129
Krugersdorp, Gauteng. pp 178-179
L'Agulhas, Western Cape. pp 81
Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 143-144
Mamre, Western Cape. pp 79
Matjiesfontein, Western Cape. pp 85
McGregor, Western Cape. pp 78
Middelburg, Mpumalanga. pp 181
Montagu, Western Cape. pp 80
Mossel Bay, Western Cape. pp 82-83
Muizenberg, Western Cape. pp 46-47
Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 145
Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 86-88
Paarl, Western Cape. pp 55-59
Pacaltsdorp, Western Cape. pp 83
Paulpietersburg, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 145
Philippolis, Free State. pp 124
Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 136-143
Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga. pp 182-183
Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 136
Port Alfred, Eastern Cape. pp 108-109
Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. pp 104-108
Potchefstroom, North West. pp 179-180
Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 162-175
Prince Albert, Western Cape. pp 88
Queenstown, Eastern Cape. pp 121
Riebeek West, Western Cape. pp 74
Robben Island, Western Cape. pp 29
Robertson, Western Cape. pp 80
Rustenburg, North West. pp 180-181
Simonstown, Western Cape. pp 47-48
Somerset East, Eastern Cape. pp 102
Somerset West, Western Cape. pp 70
Stellenbosch, Western Cape. pp 59-71
Swellendam, Western Cape. pp 80-81
Thaba Nchu, Free State. pp 128-129
Tulbagh, Western Cape. pp 75-77
Uitenhage, Eastern Cape. pp 102-103
Utrecht, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 144-145
Vryheid, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 145
Waenhuiskrans - Arniston, Western Cape. pp 82
Wellington, Western Cape. pp 53-54
Worcester, Western Cape. pp 77-78
Wuppertal, Western Cape. pp 79

Buildings linked to this book

African Theatre, 1801, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 23
Alms Houses, 1822, Bethelsdorp, Eastern Cape. pp 103 ill
Artificer's Square, 1824, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. pp 114
Artillery Barracks (Defence Headquarters) Staatsartillerie, c1898, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 169
Bovenplaats - Jan Smuts' Birthplace, 1866 : 1984, Riebeek West, Western Cape. pp 74
Boys' High School - now CP Nel Museum, 1905-1907, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 87
Burgher Watch House, 1755, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 20
City Hall, 1906-1910, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 133 ill
City Hall, 1897-1899, East London, Eastern Cape. pp 117 ill
Civil Service Club, 1897-1899, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 17
Coetzenburg, refurbishment, 1893/1903, Stellenbosch, Western Cape. pp 64
Congregational Mission Church, 1822-1825, Pacaltsdorp, Western Cape. pp 83
Court House, 1890, Krugersdorp, Gauteng. pp 179
Drostdy, 1820, Bathurst, Eastern Cape. pp 109
Drostdy, 1804-1805, Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape. pp 89-90
Drostdy - Museum, 1804-1816, Uitenhage, Eastern Cape. pp 102
Drostdy - Residency, 1906, Paulpietersburg, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 145
Dunluce - McGregor Museum, 1897, Kimberley, Northern Cape. pp 99
Durban Club, 1902, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 135
Elsenburg: Old Manor House restoration, n.d., Klapmuts, Western Cape. pp 68
Feathermarket Hall, 1885 : 1908, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. pp 104
Fort Daspoortrand, 1896, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 169
Fort Durnford, 1873, Estcourt, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 143
Fort Frederick, 1799, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. pp 108
Fort Klapperkop, 1896, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 169
Gaol - Museum, c1808, Clanwilliam, Western Cape. pp 75
General Post Office, 1897 : 1905, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 149
General Post Office, 1900, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. pp 104
Gereformeerde Kerk - Paul Kruger Church, 1895, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 163
Government Building, 1890, Boksburg, Gauteng. pp 148
Groote Kerk, 1835-1836, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 22
Harbour Board Offices, 1905, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. pp 107
Hollard House, 1895, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 299
Honoured Dead Memorial, 1902, Kimberley, Northern Cape. pp 99
House CJ Erasmus - Bella Vista - Erasmus Castle, 1904, Erasmuskloof, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 174
House CL Andersson: Dolobran, 1905-1906, Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 157
House Galpin: Tower house, (now the Observatory Museum), 1850, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. pp 113 ill
House George Heys, Melrose House, 1887, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp title page ill, 168 ill, 169
House J Loopuyt, 1904, Rondebosch, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 40
House Lewis Reynolds: Lynton Hall, 1895, Pennington/Umdoni, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 132
House Lind - Gottland House, 1902, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 88
House Miller - Janeal, 1936, Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 156
House Sammy Marks - Marks Museum, c1884, Zwartkops, Gauteng. pp 37, 174-175
House Sir Thomas N Cullinan: The View, 1896-1897 : 1903, Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 157
Iziko Museum - Koopmans de Wet House, 1790, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 26
Iziko Museum - Slave Lodge - Supreme Court, 1680 : 1807-1814 : 1926 : 1961-1964, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 19
Iziko South African Museum, 1893, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 15-16
Kruithuis (gunpowder store), Die Braak, 1777, Stellenbosch, Western Cape. pp 59-60
Landdrost, Post and Telegraph Office, 1896, Potchefstroom, North West. pp 180
Law Chambers, 1893, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 166
Le Roux Townhouse, 1909-1910, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 87, 88
Lutheran Church, 1791, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 26
Magistrate's Court - now the Fick Museum, 1890s, Ficksburg, Free State. pp 129
Magistrate's Court and Post Office, 1898, Aberdeen, Eastern Cape. pp 89
Magistrates Court and Offices, 1880, Uitenhage, Eastern Cape. pp 102
Martin Melck House (Old Lutheran Parsonage), 1781, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 26
Mayville, 1853, Swellendam, Western Cape. pp 80-81 ill
Meerlust, 1693 : 1776, Stellenbosch, Western Cape. pp 68-69
Metropolitan Methodist Church, 1876, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 20
Moravian Parsonage, 1679, Mamre, Western Cape. pp 79 ill
Museum of Natural History, now Amathole Museum, 1898, King William's Town, Eastern Cape. pp 119
Natal Government Railways Offices, c1904, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 138
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, 1864 : 1908, Aberdeen, Eastern Cape. pp 89
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, 1830-1842 : 1904, George, Western Cape. pp 83 ill
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, 1883-1885, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 164
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk - Groote Kerk, 1902-1906, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 164
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk - Now Museum, 1748 : 1795, Tulbagh, Western Cape. pp 76
Northwards, 1904 : 1912, Parktown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 160 ill, 172, 173 ill
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Station, 1896, Krugersdorp, Gauteng. pp 178
NZASM South-Eastern Line Railway Station, 1894, Heidelberg, Gauteng. pp 178
O'Neil's Cottage, 1870, Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 145
Original post office, 1888, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 149
Paardekraal Monument, 1891, Krugersdorp, Gauteng. pp 178
Palace of Justice, 1898, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 166, 167 (ill)
Pinehurst - House Edmeades, 1911, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 87
Post Office, 1898, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 155
Post Office, 1898, Jeppestown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 155
Post Office, 1898, Fordsburg, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 155
Post Office - Second, 1887, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 149
Provost Building, 1836, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. pp 110
Raadsaal, 1889, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 166, 167 ill
Raadsaal - First, 1849, Bloemfontein, Free State. pp 126
Raadsaal - Fourth, 1893, Bloemfontein, Free State. pp 126
Raadsaal and Fort, 1885, Vryheid, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 144
Railway Station, Main, 1908 : 1928, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 170
Rand Club - Third, 1902-1904, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 153 ill
Reserve Bank, 1927 - 1930, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 166, 167
Reserve Investment Building & Cafe Riche, 1905, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 167
Rhenish Church, 1835, Wuppertal, Western Cape. pp 79
Richmond House - Cock's Castle, 1860, Port Alfred, Eastern Cape. pp 108-109
Rust en Vrede, 1905, Muizenberg, Western Cape. pp 47
Rust-en-Vreugd, 1777, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 13
Savage Memorial Hall (Public Library), 1902, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. pp 104
Schoongezicht - Lanzerac, n.d. : 1830 : 1914, Idas Valley, Stellenbosch, Western Cape. pp 65
Sebastian Schreuder House, 1709, Stellenbosch, Western Cape. pp 61-62
Settler Church - Methodist, 1827 : 1939, Port Alfred, Eastern Cape. pp 108
Somerset Hospital, 1862, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 29
St George's Cathedral, 1897-1911 : 1930 : 1957-1963, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 17-18 ill, 172, 173 ill
St Mary's Hall, 1904, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 149
St Saviour's Church, 1850 : 1871 : 1904, Claremont, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 42 ill
St Stephen's, 1839, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 23
Staats Museum, 1899, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 170
Staatsmodel School, 1897, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 165
Standard Bank, 1902-1904, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 87, 88
Stellenberg, n.d., Kenilworth, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 43
Stoneyfields, n.d., Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape. pp 116
T Gibson & Co, 1904, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 25
The Lodge - now the Duggan Cronin Gallery, 1888, Kimberley, Northern Cape. pp 96
Town Hall, 1865, Beaufort West, Western Cape. pp 89
Town Hall, 1907, Harrismith, Free State. pp 129
Town Hall, 1882, Queenstown, Eastern Cape. pp 121
University of the Cape of Good Hope, 1909, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 16-17
Victoria Drill Hall, 1897, King William's Town, Eastern Cape. pp 119
Voortrekker Monument, 1938-1949, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 162
Vrouemonument - National Women's Monument, 1913, Bloemfontein, Free State. pp 125
Water Mill, 1828, Elim, Western Cape. pp 79 ill
Water Mill, 1844 : 1873, Mamre, Western Cape. pp 79
Welgeluk - House P Olivier, 1909, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 88
Westminster Estate Buildings: Stables, 1904, Tweespruit, Free State. pp 129
Westminster Estate Buildings: The Big House, 1904, Tweespruit, Free State. pp 128-129 ill

People or firms linked to this book

ABURROW and TREEBY. pp 149, 157
ACKERMANN, Adolphus William. pp 42, 54, 107
ADAMSON, James Constantine. pp 15
ALEXANDER, George Murray. pp 15
ANREITH, Anton. pp 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 22, 26, 31, 44, 65
ARCHIBALD, Robert. pp 104
BAIN, Andrew Geddes. pp 90, 116
BAKER, Herbert Sir. pp 17, 18, 22, 29, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46-47, 48, 58, 68, 99, 107, 126, 128-129, 132, 135, 149, 150, 160, 161, 166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 178, 183
BARKER, John. pp 15
BARNES, John Frederick Evelyn. pp 141
BARRY, Joseph. pp 68, 80, 81
BLACK, William Patrick Henry. pp 43, 117
BOWEN, Ernest David William. pp 118
BRADSHAW, Samuel. pp 109
BRISLIN, AC. pp 178
BULLOCK, Charles. pp 87, 88
BUTTERFIELD, William. pp 42
CANNING, Francis Lennox. pp 126, 127
CARTER and McINTOSH. pp 320, 321, 155
CLARIDGE, Tom. pp 163, 164
CLELAND, John Stockwin. pp 33, 170
COLENSO, John William. pp 141
COPE-CHRISTIE, James Alfred. pp 157
COWIN and POWERS. pp 156
DE WITT, Anthony M. pp 25, 40, 46, 57, 64, 91
DE ZWAAN, Wilhelm Johannes. pp 167, 168
DE ZWAAN and VAN DYK. pp 174-175
DOMBAER, Pieter. pp 12
DUDGEON, Philip Maurice. pp 132, 133, 136, 138, 141
EAGLE, Piercy James (Patrick). pp 151
EMLEY, Frank. pp 153, 154, 155
EMLEY and SCOTT. pp 166
FAGAN, Gwendoline Elizabeth (Gwen). pp 76
FAGAN, Gabriël Theron (Gawie). pp 76
FARROW, John Wilford Hilbert. pp 119
FLEMING, Francis (Frank) Leonard Hodgson. pp 149, 156, 172
FORSYTH, Alexander. pp 15, 17
FORSYTH and PARKER. pp 15, 22
FREEMAN, Charles AS. pp 17-18, 20, 22, 25, 54, 92-93, 134, 139, 142
GALPIN, Henry Carter. pp 113
GILBERT, George. pp 116
GLENNIE, Frederick McIntosh. pp 22
GOAD, Frederick. pp 127
GOODMAN, Joh(a)n. pp 93
GOODRICKE, John. pp 135
GRAY, Sophia Wharton Myddleton (Sophy). pp 41, 42, 82, 83, 84, 140
GREATBATCH, Daniel Westwood. pp 96, 98, 99
GREAVES, Henry [Harry] Sidon. pp 121
GREEN, Frederick George. pp 12
HAGER, Carl Otto. pp 14, 60, 61, 63, 76, 82, 86
HAGER, Johan Carel Maximillian. pp 148
HALDER, Arthur Hubert. pp 139
HALL, Joseph Lockwood. pp 170
HARRISON, John Edwin. pp 124
HAWKE, William. pp 167
HAWKE and McKINLAY. pp 16, 38, 127, 128, 152, 153, 167
HAYS, William Bennett. pp 120
HEMMING, Samuel. pp 77, 78
HENDERSON, George Gow. pp 127-128
HILDER, John R. pp 128
HOWDEN, Robert. pp 156
JONES, Herbert Thomas. pp 54
JONES, Victor Thomas. pp 107
JONES, William Oliver. pp 77
JONES and McWILLIAMS. pp 105, 107
KENDALL, Franklin Kaye. pp 45, 83, 172
KIRKNESS, John Johnston. pp 126, 166, 175
KRAAN and WYERS. pp 164
KUCHLER, George Coenraad (Major). pp 55
KÖHLER, William Henry. pp 16, 17
LAUGHTON, J. pp 119
LECK and EMLEY. pp 153, 154
LEITH, George Esselmont Gordon. pp 150, 162
LEWIS, Griffith George. pp 15
LINDHORST, Johannes Victor. pp 149
LORNE, Francis. pp 153
LOUW, Wynand Hendrik. pp 162
LOUW and LOUW. pp 22
LUCAS, William. pp 136, 143, 144
LUTYENS, Edwin Landseer. pp 38, 107, 150, 161, 171, 172
LYON and FALLON. pp 156
MILES, William Henry. pp 104
MOERDYK, Gerard Leendert Pieter. pp 162
PARKER, John. pp 15, 17, 25, 80
PRYNNE, George Halford Fellowes. pp 149, 157
ROGERS COOKE, Percy. pp 156
SCHUTTE, Herman. pp 19
SIMMONDS, JW Leslie. pp 164
SMITH, George William. pp 106
SMITH and DEWAR. pp 106
SOFF, Francois (Frans). pp 125, 167, 168
SOLOMON, Joseph Michael. pp 20, 34, 38
THIBAULT, Louis Michel. pp 19
TIBBET, James. pp 141
TREEBY, Philip Edward. pp 119
TULLY, John Collingwood. pp 126
VAN DYK, LW. pp 174-175
VAN RIJSSE, Klaas (jnr). pp 163, 164, 168, 169
VEALE, Harry George. pp 178
VIXSEBOXSE, Johannes Egbertus. pp 12, 15, 87, 129, 168
WALGATE, Charles Percival. pp 70
WELLMAN, Ernest James. pp 138
WENTINK, Dirk Egbert. pp 129
WHITE-COOPER, William. pp 95, 113
WIERDA, Sytze Wopkes. pp 148, 149, 155, 163, 165, 166, 168, 169, 178, 179
WYERS, Jan Brink. pp 163, 164, 168