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Book

Author:Bakker, Karel A; Clarke, Nicholas J & Fisher, Roger C
Year:2014
Title:Eclectic ZA Wilhelmiens : A shared Dutch built heritage in South Africa
Place:Pretoria
Publisher:Visual Books

When examples of the C19 architecture in the old Republics of southern Africa are cited by the authors they would generally be referred to in terms of broader European revival styles, and often lumped into the general category of 'Victorian'. This not only skewed their historical associations but under-estimated their 'Dutchness'. In order to correct this we have in this collection of essays chosen the neologism 'Wilhelmiens' as being that period of Dutch architectural influence in South Africa in the reign of Queen Wilhelmina. This is to counter the portmanteau terms 'Victorian' as associated with British influence, and 'Wilhelmine' or "Wilhelminian' as it is associated with Prussian, or more specifically German influence. We have added the term 'Eclectic' because the long reign of Wilhelmina deep into the C20, spans a number of stylistic episodes; 'ZA' because of it being the international code for the Republic of South Africa, but also an acronym that bears the stamp and memory of the Zuid Afrikaasche Republiek (1854-1877; 1881-1902), and later Unie van Zuid-Afrika (1910-1961), before the switching to standardised Afrikaans spelling - the early Union, where our venture ends.
(Front fly-leaf)

Click HERE to listen to an Afrikaans podcast - potgooi - interview with the authors about the book.
Click HERE for a Press Release and ordering details.

2014: President's Award - Pretoria Institute for Architecture

2015: Award for Architecture - South African Institute of Architects, Mpumalanga

2016: Award of Merit - South African Institute of Architects

2016: Award of excellence - South African Institute of Architects

Award Citation

The prehistory, so to speak, of this publication is completely embedded in the work that some academics did, and still do, in the Department of Architecture at the University of Pretoria. The immense effort that is exemplified in the pages did not materialise overnight they are the culmination of years of dedicated work. This is work that stems from a belief and philosophy that the academe has a responsibility and a role to play in the unlocking of the mysteries and knowledge contained in the built environment. Such research makes a fundamental contribution in the way that the architectural profession and the academe can serve and interact with society, so that all can operate in a better and more informed manner.

In the 'Foreword' the ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to South Africa, Andre Haspels, mentions aptly: 'If we do not know our past, we cannot look into the future.'

In a similar vein, the authors and editors of the book describe in the 'Introduction' how: ...mapping the inner city of Pretoria/Tshwane strengthened the understanding of, and the need for, a more thorough investigation of the contribution and residue of C19 Dutch engineers and architects to the patrimony of the South African hinterland.'

It was this work, done in order to map and investigate the built reality of their context, that the Department of Architecture took forward into a proposal that was funded by the Cultural Desk of the Royal Netherlands Embassy. This funding enabled a wide range of researchers and senior students in South Africa and the Netherlands to collaborate in unearthing the [necessary] source material, and to produce scholarly work that was published in this form, after double-blind peer review, by both local and foreign reviewers. Most of the source material has also been made available on the digital repository of the 'Africa Built and Landscape Environments' This means that it is digitally available to all who might have an interest in it.

The publication covers a wide range of buildings and engineering infrastructure projects that still exist, but in a state of neglect and decay, and are thus in danger of being lost; added to those that have [already] been demolished.The thoroughness with which all the examples from iconic and symbolic to the most humble have been researched, analysed and placed on record is truly impressive. The generosity with which the editors have included all concerned and able, both inside and outside of South Africa, should also set an example to others.

The production of every building component, the craftsmanship with which they are assembled, and the design expertise and philosophy underpinning the design of the ultimate architectural form, represents a deeply embedded history of culture, social and industrial relations, local and international influences, and memories of 'ordinary' and professional groupings of people. The work published in this book is an exemplary benchmark in the thoroughness, thoughtfulness, carefulness and honesty with which this reality has been annotated.

As with all good and considerate work, it has created a new insight in an authoritative manner. It also reshuffles our accepted understanding of the history and influences underpinning South African architecture and engineering infrastructure. Much of this history predates or just overlaps with the better-known and researched changes brought about by the large-scale discovery of mineral resources (and their exploitation) in the interior of South Africa. The industrialisation, development and architecture that followed these discoveries was largely driven from an Anglophone perspective. Much of our understanding of colonial architecture in the country has also centred largely on early Dutch and English influences. This book fills a gap in this perspective in that, we now know, influences came about from a more industrialised and advanced Holland, as well as other European countries. What is astounding is the evidence of the entire range of international links that were at work in the fragile state of the ZAR in order to establish, at least the start of, a modern infrastructure of institutions and elements such as roads and railways. Much of this contribution still forms the basis of what we now use on a daily basis albeit being much changed and adapted.

Furthermore, colonialism has in the past and recently been the focus of much negative and destructive commentary and populist electronic hashtag-based movements. We know that the largest part of such popular reactions is based on a superficial interpretation of far more fundamental contributions, shifts and interrelationships of high levels of complexity. In this publication, at least, one can find a well-researched and argued base on which to place a position vis-a-vis the architecture representing colonialism.

Often, when the accolade of excellence is made, it needs to be placed in relation to what others produced at the same time or in previous times. When such recent publications mostly produced outside of South Africa on local architecture or on architecture, urbanism and infrastructure in other African countries are viewed in unison, they pale in comparison. This is due mostly to trie superficiality and lack of academic, historical and professional rigour contained in them. In many ways, this largely homegrown publication sets the standard by which others should be measured.

This publication showcases South Africa's rich architectural history. But it also reveals how under-researched that history is, and that academics of this stature can make a contribution to society by allowing all of us 'to know our past' The book is also written in a manner that makes it accessible to the general population. If we read it with the care and reflection that it deserves, we will all be able to make better informed and considered contributions towards our collective future.

In conclusion, Eclectic ZA Wilhelmiens: A Shared Dutch Built Heritage in South Africa forms another chapter in the ongoing search for local excellence, international relevance and contribution that defines the Department of Architecture at the University of Pretoria.

Link to WorldCat - find this book in a library near you

Chapters/Entries in this book

Foreword

Haspels, André0
Acknowledgements

0
01The making of an architect

Abrahamse, Jaap Evert6
02The lure of the 'Golden Republic'

Clarke, Nicholas & Abrahamse, Jaap Evert24
03Style and structure

Louw, Mike48
04The 'Departement Publieke Werken'

Bakker, Karel66
05Road bridges of the ZAR

Clarke, Nicholas & Fisher, Roger90
06The genesis and development of type

Barker, Arthur110
07Lost Wilhelmiens

Keeling, Candice & Swart, Johan134
08Wilhelmiens in the African landscape

Clarke, Nicholas156
09Wilhelmiens in peril

Clarke, Nicholas174
10Wilhelmiens aftermath and legacy

Fisher, Roger & Clarke, Nicholas192
Referred and cited works and sources

216
List of figures

222
Index

230

Towns linked to this book

Barberton, Mpumalanga. pp 69
Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 51, 53, 54
Emgwenya (Waterval Boven), Mpumalanga. pp 114, 118, 119, 122, 126, 130, 172, 173, 213, 214
Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 1, 70, 78, 129, 146-155, 207
Kimberley, Northern Cape. pp 70, 73
Komatipoort, Mpumalanga. pp 117, 126
Nelspruit, Mpumalanga. pp 133
Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 22, 45, 47
Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga. pp 69
Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 1, 2, 5, 17, 22, 40-47, 73, 75, 78, 99, 113, 114, 133, 136-145, 164, 172, 196, 210
Waterval Onder, Mpumalanga. pp 115, 117, 122, 130, 214

Buildings linked to this book

Albany Museum, 1897, Grahamstown, Eastern Cape. pp 195-196, 203
Artillery Barracks (Defence Headquarters) Staatsartillerie, c1898, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 43, 78, 83, 85-86, 136, 166
Berg Spirit Co, Wine and Brandy Store, 1905, Paarl, Western Cape. pp 61
Boys' High School - now CP Nel Museum, 1905-1907, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 195
Boys' High School Gymnasium - now CP Nel Museum, 1912, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 195
Bridge over the Buffalo River, 'Buffalo River Bridge', 1898, Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 96
Burgers' Park, 1897, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 161-164, 173
Burgers' Park Caretaker's House, 1905, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136, 199, 201 ill
Burgers' Park Keeper's Cottage, n.d., Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136, 199, 201 ill
Caledon Baths - Sanatorium - Hotel, pre-1905, Caledon, Western Cape. pp 62
Caledon Sanatorium, n.d., Caledon, Western Cape. pp 62
Castle of Good Hope, 1666, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 2
Chubb & Maxwell Buiding, pre-1906, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 52 ill, 55
Church Square, 1910, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 1, 17, 22, 30, 40-47, 53, 67, 84, 136, 164, 197, 201, 202, 207, 209
Commercial Union Buildings, c1893, Central, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 55
Congregational Church, 1902, Paarl, Western Cape. pp 61
Eaton Hall, 1939, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136
EK Green & Co Building, 1899, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 56
Fort Daspoortrand, 1896, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 83
Fort Klapperkop, 1896, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 83
Fort Skanskop, 1896, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 83
Fort Wonderboom, 1896, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136
General Post Office, 1897 : 1905, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 78, 146, 147, 207
Glassberg Building, 1897, Paarl, Western Cape. pp 61, 63
Government Building - Compol Police Museum, c1890, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 43, 78
Government Printing Works, 1896 : 1932, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 43, 136, 164, 211
Grand Hotel - President Hotel, c1890, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 201
Groote Schuur - Alts, 1893, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 208
Hartebeestpoort Dam, 1925, Hartbeespoort, North West. pp 97
Hollard House, 1895, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 137
Hotel Metropole, 1895, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 55
House C Foster - Fosters Villa, 1896, Rondebosch, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 61
House CJ Erasmus - Bella Vista - Erasmus Castle, 1904, Erasmuskloof, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136, 199
House George Heys, Melrose House, 1887, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 137, 161
House J Loopuyt, 1904, Rondebosch, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 59-61
House Janssens, n.d., Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136
House Kleyn: Parkzicht, 1895, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136, 137, 161
House PH Marais, Highbury, 1895, Wynberg, Western Cape. pp 61
House R Hunter - Hunters Villa, 1896, Kenilworth, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 61
House Van Boeschoeten, c1905, Zwartkops, Gauteng. pp 202
Iziko South African Museum, 1893, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 77, 195
Johannesburg Fort, 1899, Hospital Hill, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 83-85, 165, 195
JW Jagger & Co Building, 1892, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 53
Kraaifontein Hotel, n.d., Kraaifontein, Western Cape. pp 63
Kruis Valley Church, 1871, Tulbagh, Western Cape. pp 62
Kwena Dam, n.d., Mashishing (Lydenburg), Mpumalanga. pp 97
Law Chambers, 1893, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 201
Libri Building - Van Schaik's Bookshop, 1935, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 204
Loch Bridge - Kraai River, 1893, Barkly East, Eastern Cape. pp 97
Louis Botha Memorial Home for Children, 1923, Colbyn, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 202
Magistrate's Court, n.d., Volksrust, Mpumalanga. pp 182, 183 ill
Marks Building - Gundelfinger - Metro Cycle House, 1903, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 201
Masonic Hall - Lodge de Goede Hoop, 1801, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 58
Moedersbond Maternity Hospital, 1931, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 202-203
National Zoological Gardens, bldgs, n.d., Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 198
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, 1911-1912, Bredasdorp, Western Cape. pp 62
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, 1883-1885, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 68
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, 1887, Wepener, Free State. pp 62
Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk - Groote Kerk, 1902-1906, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 76, 199
Netherlands' Bank: Bank of Netherlands - Nedbank, 1953, Pretoria Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 201
NZASM Barberton Branch Line Bridge over Louw's Creek, 1894-6, Barberton, Mpumalanga. pp 121
NZASM Barberton Branch Line Bridge over the Kaap River (Joe's Luck Bridge), 1894-6, Barberton, Mpumalanga. pp 120, 121
NZASM Barberton Branch Line Bridge over the Kaap River at Avoca, 1894-6, Barberton, Mpumalanga. pp 121
NZASM Eastern Line Bridge at Krokodilpoort, n.d., Kaapmuiden, Mpumalanga. pp 117
NZASM Eastern Line Bridge over the Dwaalheuvel Spruit - Bridge of Five Arches, 1894, Waterval Onder, Mpumalanga. pp 120, 214
NZASM Eastern Line Bridge over the Komati River, 1890, Komatipoort, Mpumalanga. pp 120
NZASM Eastern Line Ganger's Cottage, n.d., Emgwenya (Waterval Boven), Mpumalanga. pp 114
NZASM Eastern Line House - Kaapmuiden Station precinct, c1887, Kaapmuiden, Mpumalanga. pp 118
NZASM Eastern Line Medical Superintendant's House, n.d., Emgwenya (Waterval Boven), Mpumalanga. pp 118
NZASM Eastern Line Official's Residence, n.d., Emgwenya (Waterval Boven), Mpumalanga. pp 116
NZASM Eastern Line Railway Station, n.d., Elandsrivier, Mpumalanga. pp 213
NZASM Eastern Line Railway Station, 1893, eMakhazeni (Belfast), Mpumalanga. pp 127
NZASM Eastern Line Railway Station, n.d., Kaapmuiden, Mpumalanga. pp 117, 126
NZASM Eastern Line Railway Station, 1896, Middelburg, Mpumalanga. pp 127, 130
NZASM Eastern Line Staff Row Housing, n.d., Emgwenya (Waterval Boven), Mpumalanga. pp 116
NZASM Eastern Line Tunnel, 1894, Emgwenya (Waterval Boven), Mpumalanga. pp 114,214
NZASM House, 1894, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 136
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Halt, 1891, Maraisburg, Gauteng. pp 126
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Station, n.d., Boksburg, Gauteng. pp 125 ill, 126
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Station, 1892, Elandsfontein, Gauteng. pp 126
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Station, 1896, Jeppe, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 154
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Station, 1896, Krugersdorp, Gauteng. pp 126, 127
NZASM Rand Tram Railway Station - Park, 1894-1897, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 129, 131 ill
NZASM South-Eastern Line Border Bridge (Convention Bridge), 1894-6, Volksrust, Mpumalanga. pp 120
NZASM South-Eastern Line Railway Station, 1894, Heidelberg, Gauteng. pp 127
NZASM South-Eastern Line Railway Station, 1895, Standerton, Mpumalanga. pp 118
NZASM South-Eastern Line Railway Station, 1895, Volksrust, Mpumalanga. pp 213
NZASM South-Western Line Railway Station, 1895, Klerksdorp, North West. pp 126, 127, 128
NZASM South-Western Line Railway Station, 1899, Potchefstroom, North West. pp 127, 128
NZASM Southern Line Railway Station, 1892, Vereeniging, Gauteng. pp 126
Paardekraal Monument, 1891, Krugersdorp, Gauteng. pp 35, 209
Palace of Justice, 1898, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 43, 46-47, 78, 81, 84-85, 136, 164, 205, 215
Park Station, 1894-1897, Kempton Park, Gauteng. pp 129
Pinehurst - House Edmeades, 1911, Oudtshoorn, Western Cape. pp 195
Police Station, c1887, Marshalltown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 150
Post Office, 1898, Jeppestown, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 148
Post Office, 1898, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 148
Post Office, 1898, Fordsburg, Johannesburg, Gauteng. pp 148
Post Office Headquarters, n.d., Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 201
Pretoria Club, also called Second (2nd) Pretoria Club, 1889, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 68, 196, 202
Raadsaal, 1889, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 43-46, 53, 75, 78, 80-81, 136, 164, 205, 207, 209, 211
Railway Station, n.d., Kaalfontein, Midrand, Gauteng. pp 127
Railway Station, Main, 1908 : 1928, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 126, 127, 130, 143
Reserve Investment Building & Cafe Riche, 1905, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 201, 202
Salisbury House, pre-1950, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 204
St James's Church, 1898, Sea Point, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 59
St John's Church, 1884, Wynberg, Western Cape. pp 58-59
St Peter the Fisherman, 1895, Hout Bay, Western Cape. pp 59
Synagogue, 1897, Central, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 84-85, 136
Thesen's Warehouse - Van Riebeeck House, 1904 : 1953, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 55
Union Buildings, 1909-1913, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 198, 200
Victoria Cottage Hospital, 1891-1892 : 1905, Wynberg, Western Cape. pp 58
Volunteer Drill Hall, 1884 : 1888-1889, Cape Town, Western Cape. pp 54
Vrouemonument - National Women's Monument, 1913, Bloemfontein, Free State. pp 203
ZAR Road Bridge over Hennops River, 'S(Z)esmylspruit' - Wierda Bridge, 1891, Swartkops, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 97, 98, 175
ZAR Road Bridge over Marthinus-Wesselstroom (UTaka River), 'Wakkerstroom Bridge', 1893, Wakkerstroom, Mpumalanga. pp 96, 101
ZAR Road Bridge over the Apies River, 'Arcadia' Bridge, 1888-1894, Arcadia, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 92, 99
ZAR Road Bridge over the Apies River, 'Leeubrug' / 'Lion Bridge' , 1894, Arcadia, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 99
ZAR Road Bridge over the Apies River, Jacob Maré Street Bridge, 1888-1900, Sunnyside, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 92
ZAR Road Bridge over the Bivane River, 1895-1898, Paulpietersburg, KwaZulu-Natal. pp 97, 109
ZAR Road Bridge over the Blyde River (Joubert Bridge), 1897, Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga. pp 97, 105, 211
ZAR Road Bridge over the Crocodile River, near Koppie Alleen, 1897, Mashishing (Lydenburg), Mpumalanga. pp 97
ZAR Road Bridge over the Hart River, 'Schweitzer-Reneke Bridge / -brug', 1897 (1896), Bloemhof, North West. pp 93
ZAR Road Bridge over the Klein Olifants River (Meijer Bridge), 1897, Middelburg, Mpumalanga. pp 97, 100, 211
ZAR Road Bridge over the Komati River (Grobler's Bridge), 1897, Carolina, Mpumalanga. pp 97, 103
ZAR Road Bridge over the Olifants River, 'du Toit Bridge' / 'Du Toitbrug', 1892, Kromdraai, Mpumalanga. pp 92
ZAR Road Bridge over the Sandspruit, c1895, Volksrust, Mpumalanga. pp 92
ZAR Road Bridge over the Spekboom River (Steenkamp Bridge), 1897, Mashishing (Lydenburg), Mpumalanga. pp 104
ZAR Road Bridge over the Vaal River (Begin der Lijn Bridge), 1897, Ermelo, Mpumalanga. pp 97, 107, 175, 211
ZAR Road Bridge over the Wilge River, 'Bronkhorstspruit Bridge', 1939 (1892), Bronkhorstspruit, Mpumalanga. pp 92
Zuid-Afrikaanse Hospitaal, 1936, Pretoria, Gauteng. pp 198, 202

People or firms linked to this book

BAKER, Sir Herbert. pp 88, 143, 199, 208
BEVAN, William Henry. pp 88
BIERMANN, Barrie Ebenezer. pp 2
BISSET, James. pp 194
BLACK, William Patrick Henry. pp 55
BREUNING, MEH. pp 114
BRINKMAN, JF. pp 199, 204
BURG, James Stadler, Jimmy. pp 198, 204
BURG, Johannes Rienk. pp 114, 196, 197-198, 203, 204
BURG, LODGE and BURG. pp 198, 204
DE WILDT, Mauritz Edgar. pp 114
DE WITT, Anthony M. pp 3, 49-65
DE ZWAAN, Wilhelm Johannes. pp 87, 114, 127, 136, 196, 197, 200-202
DE ZWAAN and SOFF. pp 202
DEPARTEMENT PUBLIEKE WERKEN - ZUID-AFRIKAANSCHE REPUBLIEK. pp 4, 7, 14, 17, 22, 23, 35, 40-43, 47, 53, 67-89, 91, 136, 138, 140, 146, 147, 148, 150, 157, 161, 168, 170, 173, 175, 194-197, 198, 204, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211
DI GAZAR, Jan Christiaan Dirk. pp 14, 77
DOHERTY, Anthony Carden (Tony). pp 204
EMLEY and SCOTT. pp 79
FAGAN, Gabriël Theron (Gawie). pp 63
GEERS, Geurt Marinus Jacobus. pp 199
GEERS, Leendert Marinus. pp 114
GERNEKE, Carl (Gus). pp 1
GILETTI, GB. pp 93
GIRI, Celso. pp 93
GRADON, Henry Thomas. pp 114
GRANT, William Hood. pp 55
GREIG, Doreen E. pp 2
GROLL, C. pp 114
HAGER, Johan Carel Maximillian. pp 76
HAGER, Carl Otto. pp 194
HALL, Joseph Lockwood. pp 197
HOFFMANN, Paul. pp 53
HOLLENBACH, Jan Hendrick. pp 76, 87
HOLM, Dietrich (Dieter). pp 1, 2
KESTING, Jean Jacques. pp 114
KLINKHAMER, Jacob Frederik. pp 114, 129
KLUTE, AL. pp 101
KNOOP, T. pp 93
KRAAN, Johannes Gysbertus (Gijsbertus). pp 199
KRAAN and WYERS. pp 76
LAGOIS, Max. pp 93
LANE, Cyril Gordon. pp 199
LE ROUX, Schalk Willem. pp 1
LEWCOCK, Ronald Bentley. pp 2
LODGE, Clement Scarr. pp 198, 204
LUITINGH, Hermanus Cornelus. pp 83, 87, 197
MIDDELBERG, Gerrit Adriaan Arnold. pp 113, 215
NEWEY, Joseph. pp 97
NZASM: Nederlandsche Zuid-Afrikaansche Spoorweg-Maatschappij. pp 4, 40, 79, 111-133, 136, 143, 154, 157, 170-173, 175, 196, 199, 206, 211-215
OBERMEYER, Charles Ferdinand. pp 87, 88
PEARSE, Geoffrey Eastcott. pp 2
PIERNEEF, Jacob Hendrik. pp 196
PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT. pp 87, 88
RANSOME, George. pp 58
ROBERTSON, Robert MacBeth. pp 57, 62
SCOTT, Sir George Gilbert. pp 112
SIEMERINK, Hendrik. pp 77, 198-199, 204
SIMMONDS, JW Leslie. pp 44, 80
SNETHLAGE, Rudolf Abraham Iduard. pp 114
SOFF, Francois (Frans). pp 136, 196, 201, 202, 203
STEINMETZ, WL. pp 114
TENNANT, CE. pp 54
THIBAULT, Louis Michel. pp 58
VAN DER BEN, F. pp 199
VAN DER MADE, Cornelis. pp 114, 171
VAN DER MEULEN, GH. pp 114
VAN IJSENDIJK, JE. pp 114
VAN LENNEP, A. pp 114
VAN LISSA, Victor Alexander Herman Claudius. pp 113, 205-206
VAN RIJSSE, Klaas (jnr). pp 4, 7, 15, 17-23, 44, 71, 76-77, 80, 85, 87, 136, 137, 144, 159, 161, 166, 168, 194, 198, 204-205, 209
VAN WAART, Johannes. pp 103
VAN WOUW, Anton. pp 81, 83, 196, 202
VERWEIJ, W. pp 117, 171
VIXSEBOXSE, Johannes Egbertus. pp 76, 77, 87, 195-196, 199-200
WALKER, Hugh Aitken Hutchinson. pp 198-199
WARREN and ROYCE. pp 120, 122
WENTINK, Dirk Egbert. pp 77, 195
WESTENBERG, Antonie. pp 114
WHITE-COOPER, William. pp 198
WIERDA, Sytze Wopkes. pp 2, 4, 5, 7, 15, 16, 17-23, 25-30, 35, 40-47, 72-81, 83, 87-89, 91-92, 96-97, 100, 103, 136, 138, 140, 157-164, 195, 198, 204, 208, 209
WINSEN, GH. pp 83
WYERS, Jan Brink. pp 76, 86, 136