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St Andrew's College Memorial Tower
Makhanda (Grahamstown), Eastern Cape

Franklin Kaye KENDALL: Project Architect



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33°18'26.35" S 26°31'08.86" E

Referred to as the Clock Tower.

A transcribed extract from the St. Andrew's College Magazine of 1921 provides a contemporary description of the Design of the Memorial Tower:


As stated in our last number, the Memorial Tower now being built can only be fittingly finished when we get our total of £10,000. We are still about £1,400 short. It will be an obvious gain if we can get this sum in the next few weeks as we could then complete the work in accordance with the architect's plans and not have to start work over again at some future date. The money for education is reserved and those who subscribed particularly for this purpose may rest satisfied. The remaining £1,400 is required to complete the visible memorial.


The site selected for the S. Andrew's Memorial Tower is the open piece of ground immediately east of the chapel – so that it will stand alone, forming a prominent feature overlooking the playing fields and several of the buildings of the College.

The foundations are already in, and the next six months should see a steadily rising monument to the Andreans who nobly sacrificed their lives in the great cause of their country. The tower itself is of simple design in conformity with the chapel, round-arched Gothic in character and style which admits of the most suitable treatment of the local stone.

The plan forms a square porch with a massive diagonal buttress at each corner. In each face there is a wide open arch – so that access may be had from all four sides – the porch being ceiled with a concrete groin. Angle wise across each corner of the porch is a marble slab, inscribed with a list of the names of the fallen; and over the main entrance (facing Somerset-street) a tablet denoting the purpose for which the memorial is being erected.

The upper portion of the tower is accommodating a clock and bells which will chime the quarters, - with a large dial on each of the four sides.

A feature of the design is the large tower light or opening which adorns each face of the tower – the lower portion of which is filled with wood louvers' – the portion being left open, so that the sound of the bells may not be impeded. A battlemented parapet terminates the masonry, which is crowned with a small pointed tile roof and weathervane.

Scan of original document provided by Penny Tyson, Archivist, St Andrew's College, Grahamstown.

Ref: S. Andrew's College Magazine. December 1921, Vol. 43, No. 171. St Andrew's College, Grahamstown: pp 139 – 140.


A transcribed extract from the St. Andrew's College Magazine of 1922 provides a contemporary description of the unveiling of the Foundation Stone of the Memorial Tower in November 1921:


The foundation stone of the Old Andrean War Memorial was laid by Vice-Admiral Sir W.E. Goodenough, K.C.B., M.V.O., in the presence of a large gathering of Old Andreans, relatives of the fallen, and others interested in the College.

The memorial, which has already been described in the Magazine is to consist of a campanile near the College chapel, overlooking the playing fields, and here a platform was erected for the stone-laying ceremony. The Cadet Corps of S. Andrew's College, Kingswood College and the Victoria High Schools formed a cordon round the spot, and within the lines were enclosures for relatives, the College Council and staff, and Old Andreans. The proceedings commenced at 5:30 p.m. when the Bishop of Grahamstown arrived. Vice-Admiral Sir William Goodenough followed in company with the Principal, Mr. L. L. Giddy (Chairman of the College Council), Mr. F.M. Wetherell and the Mayor. The arrival of the Admiral was signalised by the sounding of the general salute, after which Kipling's Recessional was sung. At the conclusion of the hymn the Rev. W.G Dowsley recited a collect for the souls of the faithful departed, "especially of those from the School who fell in the war." Then while the Cadets stood at attention the Principal read the Roll of Honour.

Mr Giddy, addressing the assemblage, invited the Admiral to lay the stone. The Old Andrean Club, he said, which was mainly responsible for the memorial to those who fell during the war, wisely decided that it should be of two forms: one was the monument, of which the foundation stone was being laid that day, and the other was in the form of education for the sons of the Old Andreans who fell. He did not propose to go into the details of the memorial to be erected there beyond merely stating that the height of the tower from the foundation to the top would be about 75 feet (22.86m). Messrs, BAKER, KENDALL & MORRIS, of Capetown, who were responsible for so many of the beautiful buildings in Grahamstown, were the architects, and Messrs. Carr & Co., who had done so much work for the College, were the contractors. On behalf of the Council of the College and of the relatives of the fallen, he wished to say they were deeply grateful to the Principal for his untiring work in raising funds for the memorial and for the scholarships. It had been entirely a work of love to him as well as to those associated with him, the committee of the Old Andrean Club, Old Andreans, and others interested in the College all over the country. He (Mr. Giddy) was sure that when the memorial was completed it would be one that would fittingly commemorate those gallant sons of the college whose names had just been read, and it would be a living inspiration to the boys at the College at the present time and to the generations yet to come. He thanked the other Colleges who were represented there that day; S. Andrew's was glad to see them there participating in the memorial service, for it showed that the brotherhood of the various colleges in Grahamstown was increasing. The thoughts of this College were with them in their gallant sons who fell in the war. In conclusion Mr. Giddy heartily thanked Sir William Goodenough for coming a long distance to be present. They were all aware of his splendid record in the service of the Empire, to say nothing of the part he took in the famous Battle of Jutland. They hoped that they would have opportunities of extending further hospitality to him in the future.

Sir William then laid the stone, using a silver trowel presented by the architects.

The stone bore the following inscription:


K.C.B., M.V.O.,

Addressing the people, the Admiral said: What memorial shall you and I raise to the memory of those whose sacrifice and devotion we celebrate to-day? There will be many memorials raised in this country in nearly every town and village, as well as a great memorial in Delville Wood itself; but were each memorial as fine as Westminister Abbey or as beautiful as the Taj Mahal there would yet be something wanting if it were not imbued with the personal spirit of each one of us. Think of that list of men you have heard read out. They are the names of men who gave not this amount or that amount, but who gave all they had for us and for their country, and as I heard their names called one could almost hear each one of them answer that he was here and ready again to do what he had done for us. What shall we do for them? How much shall we give? How much did they give? They gave all; and I speak here more particularly to those who are still members of this school and to the younger ones who will one day belong to it. Nothing really suffices, but all.

I would like to give you a watchword of that great military genius, great gentleman, and great hero, not of our country – I refer to Stonewall Jackson whose watchword was: "Press forward," and with this proviso and condition: "Press forward, not to obtain the prize but to overcome the obstacle." Think of Christopher Columbus, who died in want and poverty in a wretched place in Spain: think what we owe to him. Think of that matchless hero, John Nicholson, as he lay in that narrow street which was lead to the capture of Delhi and the salvation of India to our empire. As he lay dying his last words were: "Forward, men, forward." That was his last thought. And of men who left this shore and did not come back, not going north but going south, think of that great character Robert Scott, who found his earthly end at the South Pole. The lives of these men I would counsel you to study, to think of, and to act by – not to obtain the prize but to overcome the obstacle. Remember that the steps to the heights are not the shoulders of your fellows; don’t try too much to be first, but do your best and then you may rest assured that whether it be your school, your town, or your country, all will be well.

What of success? Think of Gallipoli. Many people will tell you that this was a failure. It held for months the flower of the whole country's army, and the retirement was, I suppose, one of the finest things that has ever been done from a military point of view. These things, of which I have tried to tell you to-day, we must do if we are to honour those whose names we have heard. The strongest of all ties bind you and them together: the common school which nourished you, which brought out the best in you, to which you owe so much, and to which in after years you will look back as one can look back, perhaps, to nothing else. You are bound by the closest ties to those who have fallen – well-remembered, well beloved we may leave them calm and triumphant, their bodies at rest, their souls with God.

What of the future? The future of this country lies in the hands and hearts and minds of you young men and many thousands more who are scattered all over this Union. Upon character will depend whether this country does well or not. Let me counsel two things: one, purpose; the other, unselfishness. Let not your thoughts be vague; be purposeful. Don’t forget your comrades whether in school or in the greater college to which you are going, the great country to which you all belong, the King to whom we all owe allegiance.

"If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars;
It may be in you smoke concealed
Your comrades chase e’en now the fliers
And but for you possess the field."

However late the Last Post may sound, concluded Sir William, the Reveille will sound in the morning.

After the address the hymn "Now all men thank we God" was sung, during which a collection, which amounted to £12, was taken up in aid of the War Memorial fund.

The Bishop of Grahamstown pronounced the Blessing, after which an impressive service closed with the sounding of the Last Post, and the singing of the National Anthem.

Scan of original document provided by Penny Tyson, Archivist, St Andrew's College, Grahamstown.

Ref: S. Andrew's College Magazine. April 1922, Vol. 44, No. 172. St Andrew's College, Grahamstown: pp 139 – 140.


A transcribed extract from the St. Andrew's College Magazine of 1924 provides a contemporary description of the unveiling ceremony for the Memorial Tower:


At 5.30 p.m. on St. Andrew's Day the Lord Bishop of Grahamstown, accompanied by the Dean and other clergy, proceeded to the Memorial Tower, while the Principal, with the Council and the Staff, met General Sir Henry Lukin at the gate. The General inspected the Guard of Honour, and afterwards addressed them as follows: "It is a great pleasure to me again to inspect the Guard of Honour of St. Andrew's Cadet Corps. I need say nothing more than that you have kept up the reputation which your corps has held for many years." He then took up a position beneath the dedicatory tablet, which was veiled with the Union Jack.

The Bishop then read the following prayers:-

"Almighty God, we commend to Thy loving kindness the souls of Thy servants from this school who gave their lives to defend us. Accept, O Lord, the offering of their self-sacrifice, and grant to them a place of refreshment and peace where the light of Thy countenance shines and all tears are wiped away, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

"Accept, we beseech Thee, O Lord our God, this Tower which has been dedicated to Thy honour and glory, and in memory of Thy servants whose names in this place are ever dear unto us: and grant that as they, in earthly warfare, gave their lives for their friends, so we, after the good example which they set, may, in the spiritual warfare, fight the good fight and strive to follow the steps of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Who gave His life for us upon the cross and rose again and now liveth and reigneth with Thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen."

After the Lord’s Prayer the hymn "For all the Saints" was sung to Vaughan Williams' setting.

Thereafter the Principal, addressing Sir Henry Lukin, said: It is my duty to welcome you, sir and to thank you in the name of the School and of the friends of the school for coming 800 miles to perform the duty which is yours. It is fitting, as the commencement of this memorial was marked by the presence of a famous Admiral (Sir William Goodenough), that its completion should be marked by the presence of a great soldier. It is fitting that the man who commanded the South African Brigade, first in Egypt and then in the fields of France and of Flanders, should be the man to do this duty. It is even more fitting, because under General Lukin's direct command a very large proportion of those whom we now count among our honoured dead fell in the cause of duty. It is also fitting that the man who commanded the Brigade which earned undying fame at Delville Wood and other places on the Western Front should be here at our request to-day. What I feel to-day more than anything is that it is not the General but the man that I wanted, and I think you wanted. If I may explain what I mean: three years ago when the Governor-General and the Princess were here, General Lukin walked across the platform at the station and gave me a grip without a word, and I knew what he meant: he meant that many of ours had fallen, he meant that he shared our sorrow, and he meant even more than that – he meant that he was uplifted, was led onward, by his comradeship as well as by his command of those whom we are here to honour as well as we can to-day. I shall now ask Mr. Mullins to read-for the last time-the list of our honoured dead.

The Rev. R.G. Mullins then read the Roll of Honour.

General Sir Henry Lukin said: I have to thank the Headmaster and the governing body of St. Andrew’s College for the honour of being asked to unveil this very handsome arch which has been erected by Andreans to the memory of the old boys who so nobly upheld the traditions of their school. My presence at St. Andrew's on such a memorable occasion as the present reminds me of an incident which occurred on Christmas Day, 1916. At that time the Ninth Division was holding the line to the east of Arras, facing the famous Vimy Ridge which in a few weeks was to be the scene of one of the historic battles of the War. During my tour of the trenches, held by the South African Brigade, I had occasion to ask the sentry as to the condition of the wire in front of his post. The man was peering intently into a periscope; our lines at that time were separated by only about 150 yards from those of the enemy, and it would have been courting death for any man to look over the parapet. On receiving the information I asked for I was on the point of moving off when I turned to the sentry and said: "Well, my lad, I hope that you will live to see many more Christmases." He returned my greetings, and then, I suppose, feeling that the ice had been broken, he blurted out: "I remember so well, sir, the first time I saw you." I said: "Where was that?" He said: "I was in the Cadet Corps at St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown, and you came down there to inspect us." I hope that my young friend enjoyed the little chat which followed as much as I did.

The Iron Duke is credited with having said that the Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton: I am confident that the commander's of our armies in the Great War would gladly vouch for the value of the personality of the public school boy. His fine comradeship, his consideration for others, and his cheery optimism were a tonic to all those with whom he came in contact. Furthermore it tended very much to promote that splendid feeling of spirit-de-corps which did so much to help our armies, after a comparatively short period of training, to be pitted against, and eventually to defeat, the troops of the greatest military power that the world has known. Amongst the great public schools of our Empire those of South Africa did not lag behind, and, St. Andrew's, you may well be proud of the record of your old boys. Those lads were grand, and they were so unconscious of their grandeur.

I am thinking of two incidents of devotion to duty amongst many that I could relate. A few weeks after the fighting on the Somme in July, 1916, during which the South African Brigade was heavily engaged at Longueval, Delville Wood, Trones, and Bernafay Woods, I happened to be in London for two or three days, and I took advantage of the opportunity to visit our wounded. I had been chatting to a youngster – judging from his appearance I should say he was not more than 21 – who had been dangerously wounded but was making a rapid recovery. Wishing him good-bye I said: "Well now, you must look alive and get fit, I want all you fellows back again with the Brigade." When I made the remark he was holding my hand, suddenly he tightened his grasp and a look of pained dismay came over his face. That lad for the first time realized what a return to health would mean; he would have to rejoin his regiment and would again have to experience the horror of the trenches and those shocking realities of great battles. His grasp loosened for a moment, and then suddenly tightened as he looked me straight in the eye and said: "I will come back as soon as I can, sir; I want to do my duty." Another occasion was in the latter part of 1916 when the Brigade had been engaged in several attacks at the Butte de Warlencourt. The weather was of the worst; it had been raining for weeks, and the condition of the trenches and the roads was beyond description. One morning, after a very bad night during which the enemy had been keeping up a constant bombardment of our line, just as the grey dawn was breaking I happened to come across a small party in command of a very young subaltern. Two men were lying in stretchers waiting to be carried to the regimental relief post; two others were there but their earthly sufferings were over for they were past all human aid. I made one or two comments on our experiences of the night to the young officer, and I said: "I am sure you must all be tired of the War." After a moment’s thought he turned to me and said: "Yes, sir, we are all very, very tired of the War but if leaving my bones in these trenches can further the great cause for which we are fighting I am prepared to leave them here."

Tradition is the life blood of a school or a regiment. In many distinguished regiments of the Army the tradition is fostered that the souls of the departed always march with the regimental colours. It is a fine belief which has inspired many a brave act. I have known men of humble rank and birth undergo terrible privations, untold sufferings, and face death unthinkingly rather than any act of theirs should dim the lustre of the colours of the regiment to which they were so proud to belong. Now, Andreans, your School has splendid traditions of which you may well be proud. It is your duty to uphold them. You may not be called upon to die for your country, but you can live for it. Live for those ideals of honour, loyalty, and obedience to duty, and that priceless gift of freedom and justice for which so many of your predecessors have given their lives. There are many present here to-day who will feel a profound sorrow when they see inscribed on this arch the name of a husband, a son or a brother. To them we offer our reverent and most sincere sympathy. My friends, our hearts ache for the wives and mothers - those who gave their dearest, who were all the world to them, to the service of their country. We must ever be proud and never forget the noble fortitude shown by our womenfolk in bearing their awful burden through those long and anxious years.

In conclusion, I hope I may be allowed to make a suggestion: on the anniversary of this day, or some other suitable date in the year, the boys of St. Andrew's College should be assembled at this arch and told the story of the devotion to duty of those whose names are inscribed on it, and of how these men, by their courage and self-sacrifice, conferred undying honour on themselves and the school in which they grew to manhood. Their name will for ever be crowned with honour and glory.

The General then unveiled the dedicatory tablet which bore the following inscription:- (See photo)


The "Last Post" was sounded, after which,

Mr. E. W. Douglass, the President of the Old Andrean Club, formally handed over the memorial to the keeping of the Council of the College. Addressing himself to the present boys he dwelt on the significance of the memorial as a call to duty not only in the field of battle but also in the classroom and in the work of life.

Mr. L. L. Giddy, the Chairman, accepted the memorial on behalf of the College Council and undertook to preserve it for all time.

The "Reveille" was then sounded, and a most impressive, yet simple ceremony concluded with the Bishop’s blessing and the singing of the National Anthem.

Wreaths were placed within the arch from the following:

The Headmaster and Staff, the School, the Old Andrean Club, Mrs. Denison Clarke, and Mrs. Wyche.


Scan of original document provided by Penny Tyson, Archivist, St Andrew's College, Grahamstown.

Ref: S. Andrew's College Magazine. March 1924, Vol. XLVI, Part 1. St Andrew's College, Grahamstown: pp 17 – 21.

[Submitted by William MARTINSON]

All truncated references not fully cited below are those of Joanna Walker's original text and cited in full in the 'Bibliography' entry of the Lexicon.