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Hanafi Mosque / Musgid Jamie Mosque / Dorp Street Mosque
Bo-Kaap, Cape Town, Western Cape

Date:1881
Type:Mosque
Style:Eclecticism : Islamic Traditionalist
Status:Extant
Street:c/o Dorp and Long Streets

 


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Coordinates:
33°55'25.57" S 18°25'02.50" E Alt: 37m

Die Hanafimoskee, ook die Musgid Jamie genoem in die Aktes

Afgesien van Sjeg Joesoef van Makassar (1626-1699) en Imam Abdullah ibn Kadi Abdussalaam oftewel Tuan Guru (†1807), was Abu Bakr Effendi (c1835-1880) die bekendste Islamitiese leiersfiguur in die vroeë geskiedskrywing van die Kaap. Dit kan toegeskryf word aan die dispuut oor leerstelling wat as gevolg van sy teenwoordigheid en toedoen onenigheid in die gemeenskap gebring het.

Hierdie afgesant van die Turkse Sultan, se permanente verhuising na die Kaap in 1862 het daartoe gelei dat die Hanafikode van wetsgeleerdheid naas dié van die ouere Sjafikode, soos deur Tuan Guru vasgelê, ingevoer is. Terwyl Effendi deeglik in al vier die ortodokse leerstellings onderlê was, het hy die Hanafikode uitgeleef. Dit en ander godsdienstige uitsprake het hom in botsing met gevestigde gebruike gebring [KAB CSC 2/1/1/160, no. 62] en ? kloof tussen sy volgelinge en studente, waaronder die kleinseuns van Tuan Guru, en sy teenstanders veroorsaak.

Effendi is voor Julie 1880 oorlede [KAB MOOC 7/1/407] en was gevolglik nie by die oprigting van die eerste Hanafimasjid betrokke nie. Die terrein van die moskee is eers in Februarie 1881 aan die Moslem Sekte [sic] Aghanaf oorgedra. Achmat Sadiek is as die eerste imam aangestel en hy is opgevolg deur Hafiz Imam Ismail Manie wat godsdienstige opleiding in Mekka ontvang het. Hy was verantwoordelik daarvoor dat die masjied ook ? belangrike madressa geword het waar seuns en dogters tot 1914 dieselfde skoling in beide die Sjafi- en Hanafileerstellinge kon ontvang (Davids, 1980:184).

Volgens die akte (Akte 11/2/1881, no. 258) is die eiendom gekoop met die doel om ? moskee daarvan te maak. Die hofsake van 1873 en 1874, waardeur die Hanafis en die Hanafikode geloofwaardigheid bekom het, het tot diskriminering teen hulle en die gevolglike nodigheid vir 'n eie bederuim gelei. Die akte het bepaal dat die moskee vir alle Moesliems oop moes wees, maar dat die Hanafikode tydens byeenkomste sou geld.

Dit is 'n klein moskee wat die hele terrein volstaan. Om 'n bederuim te maak is die binnemure van die huis of huise uitgebreek. Aan die kant van Dorpstraat het 'n stoep bewaar gebly. Die masjied is as 'n streng eenvoudige blok, twee verdiepings hoog op die terrein gebou. 'n Borsweringmuur verskuil die omsluite platdak en pseudoblokwerk aksentueer die hoeke. Die basis van die minaret waarbinne ook die hoofingang, projekteer buite die voormuur om 'n toring, twee keer so hoog as die gebou, te maak. Die basis is vierkantig en eindig in 'n platform net bo borsweringvlak; die boonste gedeelte is tweevlakkig en oktogonaal onder 'n klein uiekoepel en sekelmaan. Lyswerk verdeel die voorfasade en die minaret in vier dele met die bodele van die gebou en minaret deur swaarder lyste en kanteling aksentueer. Van hierdie lyste en ook die dekoratiewe dakrand is later verwyder. Kyk foto’s KAB AG13488 & E2075.

'n Geboogde opening, met 'n deur en bolig, lei na die platform. Ander openinge is op dieselfde wyse artikuleer: opvallende perdeskoenboë wat op swaarder lyswerk eindig. Dié lyswerk vorm kapitele vir die kolommetjies aan weerskante van openinge. Die lyswerk is tot die hooffasade beperk of het in die slag gebly toe die sydeur later ingebreek en die hele buitemuur aan Dorpstraat herpleister is.

Die vier hoekpilare van die minaret vorm 'n klein portaal waardeur die bederuimte met die mihrab of gebedenis in die middel van die teenoorgestelde muur betree word. Wasgeriewe is voor 1979 by die noordehoek ingerig en deur 'n toegang met die bederuim verbind. In die jare tagtig is hierdie geriewe hierbo dupliseer toe die galery oor amper die volle grootte van die gebou uitgebrei is. Die gebedenis is sentraal binne 'n marmerraam waaroor 'n bollende en segmenteerde uiekoepel in reliëf aangebring is. Die binneboog is simmetries en geen poging is aangewend om dit na Mekka te rig nie. Die mat van die gebedeleier is in die noordehoek langs en saam met die minbar in dié bederigting of qibla gekeer.

KAB = Kaapse Argiefbewaarplek

Le Roux Schalk. W. 1992. Vormgewende invloede op die ontwikkeling van moskee-argitektuur binne die Heilige Sirkel aan die Kaap tot 1950. UP: PhD-verhandeling.

The Hanafi Mosque known also as the Musgid Jamie in its Title Deeds

[Note: Fransen, in his latest Old buildings of the Cape, also calls it the Nurul Hammedia, but I (Schalk le Roux) do not know the name and Davids (1984) does not mention this version of it.]

[Other than Sheikh Yusuf of Macassar (1626-1699) and Imam Abdullah ibn Kadi Abdussalaam or rather Tuan Guru (†1807), Abu Bakr Effendi (c1835-1880) was of the most renown Islamic leaders of the earliest historiographies of the Cape. This can be attributed to the then ongoing disputes in orthodoxy which his presence in the Cape brought to the community.

This emissary of the Turkish Sultan’s permanent relocation to the Cape in 1862 lead to the importation of the Hanafi School of thought alongside the older established Shafi’i School, as determined and established by Tuan Guru. While Effendi was thoroughly grounded in all four orthodoxies, he lived by the Hanafi Code. This brought him into conflict with established practices [CAR CSC 2/1/1/160, no. 62] and a divide between his followers and students, amongst who were the grandsons of Tuan Guru, and his adversaries.

Effendi died before July 1880
[CAR MOOC 7/1/407] and had thus not been involved in the erection of the first Hanafi Masjid. The site was only handed over to the Moslem Sect [sic] Aghanaf in February 1881. Achmat Sadiek was invested as the first imam and he was succeeded by Hafiz Imam Ismail Manie who had received his religious training in Mecca. It was he who saw that the mosque also became an important madrassa where, up until 1914, boys and girls received equal schooling in both the Sjafi en Hanafi doctrines (Davids, 1980:184).

According to the acts of title
(Title Deed 11/2/1881, no. 258) the property was sold for the purposes of erecting a mosque. The court cases of 1873 and 1874, through which the Hanafis and the Hanafi Code were granted credence, lead to them being discriminated against and thus requiring their own place of worship. The title deed made the mosque available to all Muslims, but that the Hanafi Code would hold sway during times of worship.

It is a small mosque that occupies the entire site. In order to create a prayer hall the internal walls of the house were demolished. A stoep was preserved on the Dorp Street side. The mosque is a strictly regular block, two storeys in height, built on the entire site. A parapet wall encloses and conceals the flat roof, the corners accentuated by plastered feaux quoining. The base of the minaret, which also houses the main entrance, projects beyond the front wall for creating the tower twice the height of the building. The base is square and has a platform just above parapet height; the top half, octagonal in form, has two levels, beneath an onion dome bearing a crescent moon. Mouldings divided the front facade and the minaret into four parts, the upper mouldings being heavier, accentuating the minaret and cantilevering. Of these mouldings were later removed
(See photos CAR AG13488 & E2075).

An arched opening leads to the platform. Other openings are similarly articulated: striking ogee arches resting on heavy mouldings. The mouldings form capitals for the slender columns on the western facade. Mouldings were restricted to the Dorp Street facade or could have been sacrificed in the process of breaking through a side door and subsequent replastering of the entire Dorp Street facade.

The four corner columns of the minaret form a small portal which connect to the prayer hall with its mihrab or prayer niche on the opposite wall. Ablution facilities were incorporated in the northern corner before 1979 and connected to the prayer hall by a doorway. These facilities were doubled up in the 1980s when the gallery was extended to almost the size of the entire building. The prayer niche is central to the prayer hall and surrounded by a marble frame which carries a bas-relief segmental onion dome. The central arch is symmetrically placed without any attempts at orientating it to Mecca. The mat of the prayer leader however is located in the northern corner and it, with the minbar to which it is adjacent, is oriented over qibla towards the Holy City.
(English translation: RCF)]

Le Roux Schalk. W. 1992. Vormgewende invloede op die ontwikkeling van moskee-argitektuur binne die Heilige Sirkel aan die Kaap tot 1950. UP: PhD-verhandeling.

Additional sources

Da Costa, Y. & Davids, A. 1994. Pages from Muslim history. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter.

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These notes were last edited on 2020 09 15


Writings about this entry

Cohen, Ronald. 2015. Cape Town : a study in watercolours. Cape Town: Fernwood Press. pg s.p.
Davids, Achmat. 1980. The Mosques of Bo-Kaap - A social history of Islam at the Cape. Athlone, Cape: The South African Institute of Arabic and Islamic Research. pg 21, 55, 163, 172-184
Fransen, Hans. 2004. The old buildings of the Cape. A survey of extant architecture from before c1910 in the area of Cape Town - Calvinia - Colesberg - Uitenhage. Johannesburg & Cape Town: Jonathan Ball Publishers. pg 42a
Le Roux, SW. 1992. Vormgewende invloede op die ontwikkeling van moskee-argitektuur binne die Heilige Sirkel aan die Kaap tot 1950 . Pretoria: PhD-verhandeling: Universiteit van Pretoria. pg 206-208
Martin, Desmond. 2007. Walking Long Street. Cape Town: Struik. pg 64, 65 ill
Rennie, John for CPIA. 1978. The Buildings of Central Cape Town 1978. Volume Two : Catalogue. Cape Town: Cape Provincial Institute of Architects. pg 137-138 Item 55.55